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Production area and history
CE recognition: 2011
The production area of the Coppa di Parma PGI is identified by the entire administrative territory of the Provinces of Parma, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Mantua, Pavia, and by the municipalities along the Po belt which fall within the administrative territory of the provinces of Lodi, Milan ( San Colombano al Lambro), Cremona.
The reputation of the Coppa di Parma PGI is demonstrated by numerous documents bearing references and citations relating to the product in question. Already at the end of the seventeenth century there are references to the Coppa di Parma, such as "bondiola" or "salami investito", or sausage. At the beginning of the 1700s, the Coppa di Parma was mentioned in travelers' memories as a typical product of the place. In an inventory, drawn up in 1723, it is stated that in order to join the guild of "lardaroli" it is necessary to have a certain number of salami and bondiole. An estimate by the officers of the art of lardaroli (1750) and a shout of April 21, 1764 also refers to the Parma Cup.
The Coppa di Parma PGI stands out from other products in the same product category for its typical flavor with the right degree of flavor, for its medium consistency, for its homogeneity and thinness, and for its uniform color, red in the lean and pink part in the fat part. Other characteristics that differentiate the Coppa di Parma from other cups produced in the neighboring areas are the softness of the slice and the low relevance of the spices used in tanning.
Coppa di Parma PGI
Production regulations - Coppa di Parma PGI
The "Coppa di Parma" protected geographical indication is reserved for the product that meets the conditions and requirements established in this production specification, prepared in accordance with Regulation (EEC) no. 2081/92.
The product transformation area is the geographical area identified by the administrative borders of the provinces indicated below:
Piedmont region: provinces of Alessandria, Asti, Novara, Turin, Vercelli;
Lombardy region: provinces of Brescia, Como, Cremona, Lecco, Mantua, Milan, Varese;
Emilia-Romagna region: provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Modena, Parma, Reggio Emilia.
Area of origin of the raw material
The raw material consists of the meat of pigs born in Italy and bred and slaughtered in the territory recognized for the products with D.O.P. "Prosciutto di Parma" and "Prosciutto San Daniele", obtained from farms and pigs having the characteristics of those included in the production chain of the aforementioned denominations.
The typical phases for the retention and the elaboration of the product, as handed down by the tradition of the producers of the area, are the following: preparation of the raw materials: trimming: after the isolation of the muscle mass we proceed
the trimming which consists in the elimination of the exuberant fatty parts, of aponeurosis and any jagged meat, giving the piece a regular conformation of cylinder slightly thinner at the ends, with a length oscillating between 25-40 cm approximately and weighing not less than 2 kg. The particularly accurate trimming has, in particular, the purpose of eliminating any cuts present in the muscle mass and any excesses of fat or muscle parts so as to eliminate the risk of overlapping of meat parts or of anomalous infiltration of mold incompatible with the characteristics of the product typical "Coppa di Parma"; ingredients: the ingredients used for the preparation of the "Coppa di Parma" are: salt, flavorings. The following can also be used: wine, dextrose, fructose, starter cultures, sodium / potassium nitrite, ascorbic acid and its sodium salt; salting: the distribution of salt and other ingredients can be carried out either manually or mechanically by churning. Said operation can be carried out in subsequent moments during which the product is stored in cold rooms with temperatures ranging from about 0.5 ° C to about 4 ° C and relative humidity controlled so as to favor the processes of osmosis and dehydration, the duration of this period varies from 6/7 to 10 days; rest: after the salting phase, the Coppa di Parma is subjected to a massage and set to rest in cold rooms with temperatures from about 0.5 ° C to about 5 ° C, for a minimum period of five days. Under these environmental conditions, further absorption of the salt takes place which is evenly distributed in the meat, by osmotic route, with the related release of water; coating - binding: the product passes through a forming-bagging machine which serves to make the shape more regular and to push the Parma Cup into the casing. The coating is made with bovine colon, straight or bondiana or with pig's peritoneum (sunzen). The binding consists of a first action with non-net twine in the longitudinal direction with eight or more bridles ending with the same single-strand end (harness), then a horizontal spiral binding that starts from the larger end, passes over the bridles without fixing and comes to two traverse fingers before the other end. With the final end of the spiral binding with a special tool (passetto), the steps are fixed to the harness from the bottom to the top and vice versa, in a discontinuous way with the function of preventing the steps from falling down to loosen the twine afterwards contraction, by seasoning; stewing: phase which consists in bringing the Coppa di Parma from low temperature to about 18 ° C in 8-10 hours; drying: the first phase of product drying with temperatures starting from around 22-23 ° C on the first day progressively reaches 18 ° C on the third day, with R.H. % from 55-75. The next phase, lasting about 15 days, brings the temperature down to about 14-15 ° C with R.H. % around 60-80. The stewing and drying phases take place in the same specially equipped rooms; seasoning: the seasoning takes place in climatic conditions of temperatures from about 12 ° C to about 16 ° C and with relative humidity of 70-87% until the completion of the seasoning. Under these conditions, there is a slow and gradual reduction of humidity and biochemical phenomena develop to guarantee the product well-defined typical organoleptic characteristics. The total seasoning period is a minimum of 60 days from the beginning of the processing for the cups from 2 kg to 2.6 kg and 90 days from the beginning of the processing for the cups weighing more than 2.6 kg.
The "Coppa di Parma" is made up of a whole piece anatomically represented by the muscular portion of the neck, adhering to the cervical vertebrae and part of the thoracic (muscle mass included in the shower formed by the spinous apophysis, vertebral bodies and transverse apophysis), sectioned by national pigmeat that has not been frozen. After appropriate trimming, in order to give a characteristic cylindrical shape, it is subjected to a typical technological treatment, suitable to give the product well-defined organoleptic characteristics as described in this article.
The product must have the following requirements:
- chemical and physical characteristics:
total protein min. 22%;
water / protein ratio max 2;
- microbiological parameters:
tortuous enterobacteria c.f./g 10;
E.coli u.f.c./g 10;
Stafilococcus Aureus u.f.c./g 100;
- organoleptic characteristics of the finished product:
appearance: the cylindrical shape must not be flattened. The consistency to the touch must be medium. The detachment of the casing must take place easily. The Coppa di Parma must not have greasiness or superficial patina. The lean part of the sliced product must have a uniform dark red color without spots. There must be no mold inside. When cut, the slice must not have fatty yellow or soft parts, indicating bad ripening. The flavor must be typical of a meat product with sufficient proteolytic degradation on the lean part and lipolytic in the fat part, due to a good seasoning, without presenting extraneous flavors of phenic acid, fish meal or other, and have a right degree of flavor;
other sensory parameters:
odor: the smell and the scent of a pleasant characteristic fragrance of the product are detected by sticking with horse bone on the fatty parts and not on the lean ones, near the main vein;
consistency: the degree of consistency to the touch and the cut must tend to be homogeneous between the internal and external parts, indicating the gradual dehydration and aging of the Coppa di Parma;
color: the color of the slice must not have spots and must be uniform; red in the lean part and basically pink in the fat part.
Conditioning and marketing
The "Coppa di Parma" can be marketed whole by producers, in bulk, in slices or in a protective atmosphere, or sliced under vacuum or in a protective atmosphere.
Slicing and packaging operations under vacuum or in a protective atmosphere must take place under the supervision of the control structure indicated in art. 8, exclusively in the production area indicated in art. 2.
The "Coppa di Parma" is released for consumption in compliance with current labeling rules. The label affixed for sale for consumption bears in particular, in addition to the company brand, the community logo of I.G.P. and the name "Coppa di Parma" Protected Geographical Indication or its acronym I.G.P. The aforementioned name must be larger than any other writing on the package.
The control for the application of the provisions of this production specification is carried out by an authorized control body in accordance with the provisions of art. 10 of Regulation (EEC) no. 2081/92 of July 14, 1992.
Elements that prove the origin
The product is made according to historical traditions. In fact, within the territory indicated in art. 2 a culture of transformation of products deriving from pork has developed in very ancient times. Already at the end of the seventeenth century there are references to the "coppa or bondiola" of Parma, as "invested salami", or sausage.
At the beginning of the 1700s the "Coppa di Parma" was mentioned in travelers' memories as a typical product of the place. In an inventory, drawn up in 1723, it is stated that in order to join the guild of "lardaroli" it is necessary to possess a certain number of salami and bondiole. An estimate by the officers of the art of lardaroli (1750) as well as a shout of April 21, 1764 also refers to the "bondiola". There is certain information on the amount of cup and bondiole consumption at the court of Duke Don Ferdinando Borbone. Since 1800 there has been news of the quantities of cups sold in the markets in the area: in 1940, for example, the export of cups from the province of Parma amounted to about 200 pieces. Over the course of very long times, many charcuterie products, which can be assessed over centuries and sometimes millennia, have acquired peculiar qualities or characteristics, in close relationship with the geographical environment, including natural and human factors, from which and in various cases a well-deserved and particular reputation derives. The latter condition is easily recognizable even in the "Coppa di Parma". The "Coppa di Parma" owes its peculiar characteristics to a series of very precise connections with the environment, understood in a broad sense and inclusive of natural and human geographical factors, which concern the pig, the preparation technology, the seasoning environments and above all their interacting. The "Coppa di Parma" is produced with "heavy" pork, better defined as mature pork: it is the same type of pig that for genetics, feeding and breeding conditions, but above all for the age of slaughter, it provides high quality meat for the production of Parma Ham and San Daniele Ham. On the basis of archaeological, historical, linguistic information, traditions and existing iconography, as well as scientific knowledge of biology, pig breeding and technology on food processing, in particular the preservation of meat through salting, it is possible to recognize the following. From a social and cultural point of view, but above all of the production technologies developed and preserved by tradition, the area also constitutes a unit with regard to the breeding of the pig and above all the processing of its meats (to remember, for example, also the thigh, from which ham originates). In the Po Valley, a model of domestication and breeding of the pig and production of delicatessen products originated.
Over time this model has differentiated, giving rise to many modulations, one of which is undoubtedly the "Coppa di Parma". In protohistoric times there was a semi-domestication of the pig, especially in the context of the first Etruscan-Roman and later Lombard culture. The area indicated in art. 3 is included in the vast area of Lombard pig culture. Despite some changes that have occurred over the millennia in the feeding and in the populations of reared pigs, some essential characteristics for the production of high quality meats and therefore cold cuts have remained absolutely constant. A clear line joins the production of "Coppa di Parma" from its origins until today:
- maturing areas: pre-hilly, hilly and plain;
- treatment with limited quantity of salt, as a consequence of the maturity of the pork meat;
- absence of other conservative treatments and above all of smoking.
The industrialization of the production of "Coppa di Parma" has gone through a phase of craftsmanship that has kept the traditional characteristics of the product substantially unchanged. Each manufacturing company maintains and prepares a register on which it records the data relating to incoming raw materials and, in the case of meat components, the corresponding bill number, arrival date, supplier and type of meat. The register highlights the association between raw material, according to the provisions and traceability requirements laid down by the bodies responsible for the chain controls of the protected circuit. All transactions are subject to rigorous verification by the control structure indicated in art. 8.
Elements that prove the link with the environment
Since the mid-twentieth century, production practice has confirmed that in the territory indicated in art. 2 many entrepreneurs, industrial and artisanal, maintaining and perfecting particular quality and taste characteristics of the salami traditionally called "Coppa di Parma" have used and use this denomination to label their products that are made in compliance with this specification. The climate as well as the characteristics of the air (temperatures and humidity) are typical of the area where the "Coppa di Parma" product was historically formed.
The area of origin of the raw material and of processing is delimited from that actually delineated and maintained over time in respect of the traditions that determined the fame as described in art. 9.